Onyegeme-Okerenta BM, Peters DE, Idiabeta PE
This study investigated the analgesic potentials of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis (JT) and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) on Wistar rats. Hot plate and writing methods were used to ascertain pain. Hot plates test consist of 8 groups; control, 200mg/kg celecoxib, 50mg/kg Diclofenac, 500mg/kg JT, 500mg/kg CA, 1000mg/kg JT, 1000mg/kg CA and a combination of 500mg/kg each of JT and CA labeled Groups 1-8 respectively. Acetic acid test consist of 6 groups; control, 200mg/kg Celecoxib, 50mg/kg Dichlofenac, 500mg/kg JT, 500mg/kg CA, a combination of 500mg/kg each of CA and JT as Groups 1-6 respectively. Phytochemical screening of CA revealed the presence of alkaloids (4.57%), tannin (0.38%), saponins (3.93%), flavonoids (2.38%), cyanogenic glycoside(0.71%), terpenoid (4.80%), resin(4.75%) and JT revealed the presence of alkaloids(3.59%), tannin (0.65%), saponins (2.73%), flavonoids (3.6%), cyanogenic glycoside (1.16%), terpenoid (3.50%), Resin (3.45%). Result of analgesic potentials showed that JT at 500 and 1000mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) increased the reaction time to pain. Similarly, CA at 500 and 1000mg/kg cause a significant delay in reaction time. Synergic effect of CA and JT at 1000mg/kg was significantly higher than other doses in eliciting analgesic effect when compared to groups treated with diclofenac (50mg/kg) and celecoxib (200mg/kg). In writing method assessed by acetic acid induced pain, the extracts significantly showed the amber of abdominal writhes as dose dependent. Abdominal constriction of 78.13% was observed in the group treated with a combination of 500mg/kg each of CA and JT. This showed a significant increase (p<0.05) when compared with the group treated with celecoxib and dichlofenac. In conclusion, aqueous leaves extracts of CA and JT have analgesic potentials in acetic acid and hot plate induced pain in Wistar rats.
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